Neuromodulation Definitions

Many electrical neurostimulation therapies target the brain and spinal cord -- the root of the nervous system -- to deliver pain relief or restore function. Peripheral nerve stimulation, meanwhile, targets electrical impulses elsewhere in the body, such as the limbs.

Neuromodulation using medication works by delivering an antispastic or pain relief agent directly to a target site through a catheter and pump, minimizing the dose needed and potential side effects.

To find definitions of current or emerging neuromodulation therapies and conditions in which they are applied, see the list below, or click on a letter of the alphabet to jump directly to a section:

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Addiction (Drug Addiction)


Amputation Pain (Post-Amputation Pain)


Baclofen Infusion

Bipolar Disorder


Brain Injury


Central Nervous System Disease

Central Pain Syndrome

Cerebral Cortex Stimulation

Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

Chronic Pain

Chronic Pelvic Pain

Closed-Loop Stimulation

Cluster Headache

Cochlear Implants

Cognitive Neuromodulation

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

Cortical Stimulation

Cranial-Nerve Non-Invasive Neuromodulation

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation Targets (Fact Sheet)


Diaphragm Pacing

Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation



Eating Disorders


Essential Tremor

Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

Functional Electrical Stimulation

Gastric Stimulation


Hearing Impairment

Heart Failure

Hemifacial Spasm

High Blood Pressure


Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation

Interstitial Cystitis

Intestinal Electrical Stimulation

Intracisternal Drug Delivery

Intraspinal Drug Delivery

Intrathecal Drug Delivery

Intraventricular Drug Delivery

Meige Syndrome


Motor Cortex Stimulation

Motor Impairment

Movement Disorder

Multiple Sclerosis

Neural Prosthetics

Neurogenic Pain




Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Occipital Nerve Stimulation

Optical Light Stimulation

Optogenetic Neuromodulation

Overactive Bladder

Parkinson's Disease

Percutaneous Sacral Nerve Stimulation

Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation

Peripheral Arterial Disease

Peripheral Nerve Stimulation

Peripheral Neuropathy (Fact Sheet)

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Persistent Spinal Pain Syndrome

Phantom Limb Pain (Post-Amputation Pain)

Phrenic Pacing

Pudendal Nerve Stimulation

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Restorative Neurostimulation

Retinal Stimulation

Sacral Nerve Stimulation, Sacral Neuromodulation



Sphenopalatine Ganglion Stimulation

Spinal Cord Stimulation


Subcutaneous Peripheral Field Stimulation


Tourette Syndrome

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

Traumatic Brain Injury

Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Urologic Nerve Stimulation

Vagus Nerve Stimulation

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Please note: This information should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment and advice. Always consult a medical professional about any health-related questions or concerns.

Last Updated on Wednesday, August 17, 2022 11:26 AM