The International Neuromodulation Society

The Fastest-Growing, Worldwide Multidisciplinary Body Devoted to Building Knowledge of Neuromodulation

The International Neuromodulation Society (INS) is a non-profit group of clinicians, scientists and engineers dedicated to the scientific development and awareness of neuromodulation – the alteration of nerve activity through targeted delivery of a stimulus, such as electrical stimulation or chemical agents, to specific neurological sites in the body. The San Francisco-based INS was formed in 1989 and educates and promotes the field through meetings, its peer-reviewed journal Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface, mentorship, and chapter websites. The INS also provides information for patients and produces rolling news briefs about this rapidly evolving field.

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The INS Peer-Reviewed Journal

The INS journal Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface has a growing Impact Factor and is indexed in Index Medicus, MEDLINE and Pubmed from its first issue in 1998. Members may log in to the members-only section to read the journal online. The journal also has social media accounts on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram.

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What is Neuromodulation?

Medical Professionals can learn about various considerations concerning neuromodulation and clinic contacts. Once your preliminary questions have been answered, please use the Contact Us facility to find out more and to discuss specific objectives. Others may simply wish to join the INS and one of its related chapter societies, please use the Membership Application.

Clinical trials that involve a wide range of emerging neuromodulation approaches are listed on our Research page. Neuromodulation clinical trials address symptom control through nerve stimulation in such condition categories as:

Chronic pain
Movement disorders
Psychiatric disorders
Stroke / brain injury
Cardiovascular disorders
Gastrointestinal disorders
Genitourinary and colorectal disorders
Sensory deficits

If you are not a medical professional
and you are searching for information about neuromodulation and how these types of treatment could benefit a specific condition such as treatment-resistant headache or other chronic pain syndromes, you may find the sections titled Therapies, About Neuromodulation or FAQs particularly helpful.

Members may log in and visit the members-only section’s Global Discussion Forum

Breaking News

Company Initiates Early Feasibility Study for Non-Invasive Neuromodulation Device in ALS Patients

September 15, 2023 - PathMaker Neurosystems has initiated an early feasibility study to assess its non-invasive neuromodulation device, MyoRegulator, in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The device, designed to suppress motor neuron hyperexcitability via skin pads, aims to provide an alternative treatment option for ALS, a progressive neurodegenerative disease with limited pharmaceutical interventions. (Source: Medical Device Network)

Deep Brain Stimulation During Sleep Enhances Memory Consolidation in Epilepsy Patients

September 14, 2023 - A study published in Nature Neuroscience reveals that targeted deep-brain stimulation during a specific sleep stage improves memory consolidation in epilepsy patients. Researchers used a closed-loop system to synchronize brain activity between the hippocampus and cortex using electrical pulses during sleep, leading to enhanced memory performance. This study offers insights into memory mechanisms and potential applications for memory disorders like Alzheimer's. (Source: AJMC)

Thin-Film Neural Electrodes for Enhanced Brain Monitoring and Stimulation

September 14, 2023 - Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology have developed flexible thin-film neural electrodes designed to match the mechanical properties of brain tissue, improving electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings and targeted neural stimulation. These electrodes, made from polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS) and gold nanoink, conform accurately to the brain's irregular ridges. Experiments on epilepsy rat models demonstrated their potential for precise neural measurements, visualization of seizure activity, and stimulation of various brain regions without causing inflammation or adverse effects. (Source: Eureka! Alert)

Study Reveals Lack of Knowledge Among Umm Al-Qura University Medical Students About Neuromodulation Devices

September 14, 2023 - A study conducted among medical students at Umm Al-Qura University in Saudi Arabia has highlighted a significant lack of knowledge regarding neuromodulation (NM) devices. The research aimed to assess the knowledge and perception of NM devices among undergraduate medical students and found that both pre-clinical and clinical-year students exhibited insufficient knowledge. The study suggests the need for comprehensive education on NM devices to ensure optimal patient care and early referrals for treatment. (Source: Cureus)

Study Finds Device Shows Promise in Relieving Symptoms for Teens with Painful GI Disorders

September 13, 2023 - NeurAxis, formerly known as Innovative Health Solutions, has conducted a study demonstrating that its IB-Stim neuromodulation device can effectively alleviate pain in teenagers with disorders of the gut-brain interaction (DGBIs) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The study involved 31 patients aged 11 to 18 and showed significant reductions in abdominal pain, nausea, functional disability, and somatization after four weeks of treatment with IB-Stim. While self-reported quality of life scores didn't show a statistically significant change, parents observed marked improvements in their children's physical and psychosocial function. (Source: Fierce Biotech)

Focused Ultrasound Opens Blood-Brain Barrier for Potential Alzheimer's Treatment

September 13, 2023 - Two new studies by researchers from Columbia University have demonstrated the use of non-invasive focused ultrasound (FUS) to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), potentially offering a non-invasive method to treat neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's. In the first study, FUS and microbubbles allowed the delivery of CRISPR gene-editing technology to mouse neurons with over 25% editing efficiency, suggesting potential gene corrections for Alzheimer's disease. In the second study, FUS alone triggered an immune response in mice's brains, reducing beta-amyloid and tau loads, two proteins linked to Alzheimer's, and improving working memory. (Source: New Atlas)

Abbott Issues Urgent Medical Device Correction for Over 197,000 Neuromodulation Systems Following Class I FDA Rating

September 12, 2023 - Abbott has issued an urgent medical device correction for over 197,000 of its implanted neuromodulation systems, which includes spinal cord stimulators and a deep brain stimulator. The correction comes after reports that some devices failed to restart after exiting the "MRI mode," meant to temporarily disable therapy during imaging scans. The issue, which has received a Class I rating from the FDA, is related to Bluetooth pairing problems between the implantable pulse generator and the Patient Controller app, either due to user actions or software updates. Abbott has updated device instructions and app notifications to address the problem, and additional surgeries have been required in about half of the reported cases. The company didn't disclose the exact number of complaints or whether any injuries occurred but noted an incidence rate of around 0.06% of all distributed devices. (Source: Fierce Biotech)

AI-Powered Brain Implant Restores Speech to Paralyzed Stroke Survivor

September 10, 2023 - After nearly two decades of being unable to speak due to a brain stem stroke, Ann Johnson becomes the first patient to successfully use an AI-driven brain implant that decodes her brain signals, allowing her to communicate through a computer-generated avatar that synthesizes speech and facial expressions. Researchers at the University of California San Francisco and the University of California Berkeley achieved this breakthrough. (Source: Business Insider)

Article Addresses Unlocking Health Benefits through Vagus Nerve Stimulation

September 10, 2023 - The article highlights the therapeutic potential of vagus nerve stimulation in addressing diverse health issues like depression, obesity, alcoholism, and inflammation. Various methods, such as cold exposure and controlled breathing, are discussed as means to stimulate the vagus nerve. Research explores its impact on conditions like epilepsy, arthritis, Crohn's disease, and obesity. (Source: Newstalk)

Article Addresses Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as a Growing Therapy for Depression and Beyond

September 10, 2023 - Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is gaining traction as a treatment for depression, with promising results in clinical trials. Additionally, research explores its potential effectiveness in addressing conditions like OCD, addiction disorders, chronic pain, autism, and ADHD. Challenges include the need for daily clinic visits and potential limitations in Medicare funding for maintenance treatments. (Source: PsyPost)

Study Suggests Deep Brain Stimulation Enhances Memory Consolidation During Sleep in Epilepsy Patients

September 8, 2023 - A study published in Nature Neuroscience suggests that targeted deep-brain stimulation during specific sleep phases can improve memory consolidation in epilepsy patients. The research reveals the interaction between the memory hub and the cortex and opens possibilities for memory enhancement in individuals with disorders like Alzheimer's disease. (Source: NeurologyLive)

Clinical Review Discusses Use of Neuromodulation Techniques During Pregnancy and Lactation

September 8, 2023 - This clinical review explores the management of epilepsy in pregnant and lactating women, particularly emphasizing the role of neuromodulation techniques. It discusses the safety and effectiveness of treatments like vagal nerve stimulation, responsive neurostimulation, and deep brain stimulation in this population, alongside antiseizure medications. (Source: BMJ)

Transcranial Stimulation Study Shows Promise in Treating Consciousness Disorders After Brain Injury

September 6, 2023 - Published in the European Journal of Neurology, an international study led by the University of Liège has tested transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on patients with consciousness disorders following severe brain injuries and reports promising results at the three-month follow-up. (Source: EurekaAlert!)

Six U.S. Patients Receive Brain-Computer Interface Implant in Company's Feasibility Study

September 6, 2023 - Synchron has successfully implanted its brain-computer interface device in six patients as part of its U.S.-based feasibility study. The device aims to restore functioning for patients with severe paralysis. Results from the study are expected to be available next year. (Source: MedTech Dive)

Company Receives CE Mark for Closed-Loop Spinal Cord Stimulator

September 6, 2023 - Medtronic has been granted a CE mark for its Inceptiv closed-loop rechargeable spinal cord stimulator (SCS). The device incorporates closed-loop therapy with evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) to continuously sense the body’s neural response to stimulation and automatically adjust spinal cord stimulation levels in real-time, providing consistent therapy for patients during various activities. The system offers full-body MRI access and is expected to be available in Europe soon. (Source: Medical Device and Diagnostic Industry)

Brain Stimulation Aids Stroke Patients in Small Trial

September 5, 2023 - A small clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Cleveland Clinic used deep brain stimulation (DBS) in combination with physical therapy to improve upper limb function in stroke patients. The trial involved 12 participants with moderate to severe upper limb impairment post-stroke. Results showed that the DBS and physical therapy combination was safe and improved motor function in nine of the participants, with better outcomes in those with retained motor function in the hand. (Source: National Institutes of Health)

Meta-Analyses Suggest Intrathecal Drug Delivery Effective for Managing Cancer-Related Pain

September 5, 2023 - Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have provided evidence that intrathecal drug delivery (IDD) systems are an effective approach for managing cancer-related pain and patients may benefit from its increased application. The reviews show a significant reduction in pain intensity and opioid consumption among cancer patients who received IDD, with minor complications reported, suggesting the potential for safer and more efficient pain relief. (Source: NeuroNews)

Research Review Addresses the State of Preoperative Functional MRI Enhances Brain Tumor Surgery Outcomes and Suggests Future Directions

September 5, 2023 - Preoperative functional MRI (fMRI) plays a crucial role in improving surgical outcomes for patients with brain tumors. This technique aids in planning surgical approaches, preserving essential brain functions, and reducing adverse events during surgery. This review suggests that while the clinical benefits of fMRI in neuro-oncology are well-established, ongoing research would benefit from focusing on addressing challenges, such as neurovascular uncoupling and harnessing artificial intelligence. (Source: RSNA)

Company Acquires Bioinduction and Aims to Accelerate Development and Breadth of Neurostim Technology Portfolio

September 5, 2023 - Amber Therapeutics, a startup spin out of the University of Oxford, has acquired bioinduction, a UK-based company known for its Picostim DyNeuMo platform. This platform was initially designed for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease and has been integrated into neuromodulation systems like Amber’s. The company aims to accelerate its development and build a broader neurostim technology portfolio. (Source: Fierce Biotech)

Article Investigates Vagus Nerve Stimulation's Effect on Aldosterone Levels

September 4, 2023 - A recent study examined the impact of acute transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) on serum aldosterone levels, a mineralocorticoid hormone linked to cardiovascular injuries and hypertension. The study found that while tVNS reduced aldosterone levels in younger and older adults, the difference was not significant enough to draw relevant conclusions. Aldosterone levels were influenced by age and sex, as well, irrespective of tVNS. (Source: News Medical)

Study Reveals Insights About Brain's Locomotion Control Center Through Nerve Stimulation

September 4, 2023 - Researchers uncovered key mechanisms in the brain that control the initiation of movement. The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) found in various vertebrates plays a crucial role in initiating movements like walking, flying, and swimming. Using zebrafish larvae brains, the study observed and mapped the neural circuits responsible for triggering forward motion and found that stimulation intensity correlates with vigor of movement. This discovery holds potential for understanding and addressing motor deficiencies, particularly in conditions like Parkinson’s disease (Source: Neuroscience News)

Article Addresses Patient's Experience with Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor 

September 1, 2023 - A patient underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) to alleviate the debilitating effects of essential tremor which had affected her for 37 years. After the procedure, the patient experienced significant improvements in hand function, enabling better performance in everyday tasks and some improvement in speech. (Source: Froedtert)

Case Study Found Intrathecal Baclofen Pump Provided Significant Pain Relief for Patient with Chronic Spastic Hemiplegia Following Stroke

September 1, 2023 - A 62-year-old woman who had been suffering from painful spasticity for 15 years following an ischemic stroke underwent intrathecal baclofen infusion pump (IBIP) therapy, achieving significant pain relief and partial spasticity improvement. (Source: Cureus)

Study Suggests Brain Stimulation Through Electrodes Could Enhance Mathematical Learning

August 31, 2023 - Researchers from multiple universities, including Surrey, Oxford, and Radboud, have explored the potential of neurostimulation using high-frequency random noise stimulation (tRNS) delivered through electrodes on the scalp to improve mathematical skills, particularly in individuals who struggle with math. The study found that this neurostimulation could enhance learning outcomes, particularly for those with lower brain excitability. (Source: The Independent)

Study Finds Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reduces Serum Aldosterone Levels in Women as They Age

August 30, 2023 - A recent randomized study examined the effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) on serum aldosterone levels in healthy participants of different age groups. While aldosterone levels decreased post-stimulation in both younger and older participants, the study revealed a significant interaction between sex and age, with younger women having the highest mineralocorticoid levels and older females showing the lowest. (Source: Nature)

Two-Year Data Confirms Long-Term Efficacy of Company's SCS Therapy for Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

August 30, 2023 - Nevro Corporation has published two-year data from the SENZA painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) trial, revealing the long-term effectiveness of high-frequency 10kHz spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for treating refractory PDN. The study found that patients who received a 10kHz SCS implant alongside conventional medical management experienced lasting pain relief, improved quality of life, and sleep at 24 months post-implantation. (Source: NeuroNews)

Repairing Broken Brain Circuits Offers New Potential for Parkinson's Disease Treatment

August 30, 2023 - Researchers are exploring the potential of repairing dysfunctional brain circuits to treat Parkinson's disease, with a focus on the interaction between the thalamus and the cortex. They found a significant reduction in connectivity in a specific subtype of cortical neurons in a Parkinson's state. Designer receptors activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) were used to manipulate nerve cell activity in animal models and partially restored connectivity between the thalamus and the cortex. (Source: Advanced Science News)

Personalized Transcranial Neuromodulation Holds Promise for Chronic Pain Management

August 30, 2023 - Researchers have explored ways to personalize repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for individuals with treatment-resistant chronic pain. A retrospective study reviewed scientific publications and found various methods for customizing cortical neuromodulation, including prediction-based rTMS, altering stimulation patterns, targeting non-motor areas, adjusting based on cortical networks/rhythms, deep sensory profiling, and tailoring motor rTMS specifics. (Source: Physicians Weekly)

Advancements in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Personalize Chronic Pain Treatment

August 30, 2023 - In a study published in the August 2023 issue of Pain, researchers explore the potential of personalized repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating chronic pain. Through a systematic review of scientific literature, they identify various approaches to customize cortical neuromodulation, including prediction-based rTMS, altering stimulation patterns, targeting non-motor areas, and adjusting based on cortical networks/rhythms. (Source: Physicians Weekly)

Article Addresses Breakthrough Brain-Computer Interfaces That Restore Speech for Paralyzed Individuals

August 29, 2023 - Two recent studies featured in Nature demonstrate how advanced brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) empowered by artificial intelligence can decode brain signals and enable paralyzed individuals to regain their ability to speak. These BCIs directly convert brain activity related to attempted speech into audible speech, allowing users to communicate through a digital avatar. (Source: Everyday Health)

Article Addresses Noninvasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Alleviate Pain in Systemic Sclerosis

August 29, 2023 - In a study published in RMD Open, noninvasive therapy called transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) showed potential to safely reduce pain in individuals with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The study observed reduced pain levels and lower IL-6 (an inflammatory molecule) levels in SSc patients who used tVNS. (Source: Scleroderma News)

Article Addresses Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Various Mental Health Conditions

August 29, 2023 - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has gained attention as a promising treatment for depression, but its potential extends to other mental health conditions. TMS involves the application of magnetic pulses to the brain's nerve cells, with proven effectiveness in treating depression. Research is exploring its application in conditions like Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), addiction disorders, chronic pain, autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (Source: Medical Xpress)

Article Addresses Deep Brain Stimulation Combined with Therapy for Stroke Recovery

August 29, 2023 - Research from the Cleveland Clinic reveals that deep brain stimulation (DBS) combined with physical therapy can significantly improve the quality of life and independent functioning of stroke patients, even years after their initial stroke. This study marks the first evidence of DBS effectively enhancing brain function post-stroke. (Source:

Company Initiates Trial to Address Cognitive Dysfunction in Long Covid Patients

August 29, 2023 - Soterix Medical has launched the Phase II RECOVER-NEURO clinical study, collaborating with NYU Langone Health's remotely supervised (RS) tDCS program. This trial, part of the Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) Initiative led by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), aims to address cognitive issues associated with long Covid, such as brain fog, memory problems, and attention difficulties. The study will involve interventions, including Posit Science's cognitive training program, goal management training from Mount Sinai Health System, and Soterix Medical's home-based tDCS system. The trial will assess up to 315 participants and seeks to develop a long Covid treatment based on digital therapy and Soterix Medical's REMOTE-tDCS platform. (Source: Medical Device Network)

Article Addresses Initiative to Create Injectable Magnets That Restore Damaged Neurons' Functionality

August 29, 2023 - The BRAINSTORM project, a pan-European effort to develop an innovative treatment for neurological disorders, involves creating injectable magnets that could restore damaged neurons in patients' brains, potentially addressing conditions like depression, epilepsy, and Alzheimer's. (Source: newsd)

News Story Features Neuromodulation's Role in the Recovery of a Sacramento Woman Paralyzed in a Horseback Riding Accident

August 28, 2023 - A diaphragm pacing system played a crucial role in the recovery of a Sacramento woman who had been paralyzed in a horseback riding accident. (Source: ABC)

Meta-Analysis Reveals Mood and Quality of Life Benefits in Parkinson's Patients with Deep Brain Stimulation

August 26, 2023 - A comprehensive meta-analysis compared the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in two target regions, subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi), on mood and quality of life in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The analysis of 14 studies involving 1,088 patients showed that GPi stimulation led to greater improvements in mood and quality of life, as measured by various scales, compared to STN stimulation. However, STN stimulation exhibited advantages in reducing motor symptoms and medication usage, highlighting the complex trade-offs between these two DBS targets for PD treatment. (Source: Cureus)

Biomarker-Guided Neuromodulation Offers Potential for Memory Restoration in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

August 24, 2023 - A collaborative study featured in Brain Stimulation reveals a promising breakthrough in the field of neuromodulation. Researchers, led by Michael Jacob Kahana at the University of Pennsylvania, applied targeted electrical stimulation to epilepsy patients with traumatic brain injuries, resulting in a 19% improvement in word recall memory. This innovative approach is guided by biomarkers and individual brain wiring. (Source: NeuroNews)

Company Implants Innovative Neuromodulation Device for Migraine and Cluster Headache Relief

August 24, 2023 - Salvia BioElectronics has successfully implanted its paper-thin neuromodulation device to treat severe migraine and cluster headaches, marking a significant development in headache treatment. The device, granted FDA breakthrough device designation in 2020, uses thin bioelectronic foils to deliver electrical pulses, offering relief by restoring brain balance. (Source: Medical Device Network)

tDCS Trial Shows No Cognitive Improvement in Long-term Schizophrenia Patients with Tardive Dyskinesia

August 24, 2023 - A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on cognitive function in long-term hospitalized chronic schizophrenia patients with Tardive Dyskinesia (TD). The study found that tDCS did not significantly improve cognitive function, as assessed by performance metrics, and there were no notable differences in clinical symptoms between the active tDCS and sham stimulation groups. (Source: BMC Psychiatry)

To see select neuromodulation news by category, as well as news about the INS in particular, please visit the Newsroom. To see archived news briefs dating back to January 2011, visit the News Archive.

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