Central Nervous System Disease

Central nervous system (CNS) disease is a broad category of conditions in which the brain does not function as it should, limiting health and the ability to function. The condition may be an inherited metabolic disorder; the result of damage from an infection, a degenerative condition, stroke, a brain tumor or other problem; or arise from unknown or multiple factors. Movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, and essential tremor are central nervous system conditions. What they have in common is the loss of sufficient, intact nervous system circuits that orchestrate functions as varied as memory formation (in Alzheimer’s) or voluntary motion (in movement disorders). While most conditions in this group cannot be completely cured, symptoms of central nervous system diseases can often be managed through a range of therapies, from medical to surgical treatment. Emerging therapies are also being explored. For instance, physicians studying chemotherapy for brain tumors, or the potential of gene therapy for Parkinson’s disease, are interested in brain and cerebrospinal infusion therapies to deliver anti-cancer agents or supplemental genes to brain areas where their activity might help to control or limit impact of the disease. (1, 2, 3)


1. Krames, Peckham, and Rezai (eds). Neuromodulation v.1-2, p. 978. (2009)

2. Pardridge W. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 32, 1959-1972. (November 2012)

3. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). AAV2-GDNF for Advanced Parkinson's Disease. In: ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2000- [cited 2013 Sept. 23]. Available from:http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01621581 NLM Identifier: NCT01621581

Reviewed Oct. 27, 2013
Takashi Morishita, MD, PhD
Member, International Neuromodulation Society
Associate Professor
Fukuoka University Faculty of Medicine
Department of Neurosurgery
Fukuoka, Japan

Last Updated on Sunday, November 21, 2021 08:13 PM